Figure 16. Optical rays.  Rays represent a descriptive tool when the information contained in the pulson signals remains intact between points of an object under investigation and comparable parts of a detection device.  Several management techniques facilitate this condition.

A. Pinhole camera.  A small aperture reduces the arc segments of pulson fronts such that their encoded energy signals from each point of the object facing the pinhole dominate corresponding spots on the film.  Thus each point of the source is individually ‘focused’ creating a great depth of field.  (See Fig. 13 B.)

B.Prisms.  A refractive medium in the shape of a prism creates reinforcement paths for interacting pulsons such that it changes the path of an approaching signal in a predictable manner.  See Fig. 14 and Fig.15.

1.Single prism.  A single prism creates dispersion as a function of pulson frequency associated with the refractive process.  Higher frequencies exhibit a greater index of refraction.

2.Double prism.  The progression of parallel pulson fronts may be represented as a series of parallel rays.  For a double prism when parallel rays pass through the prisms parallel to the common base each ray is bent around the base.  Rays of the same color for each prism emerge parallel to each other and are bent toward a central axis represented by the extension of the boundary between the bases. 

C.Lenses.  The lens represents a refraction medium that has been shaped to manipulate the refraction process such that energy stimulating patterns of the originating pulson signal are managed (focused) in a precise, uniform manner.

1.The effects of a converging lens on light (pulson fronts from an activated “point macron”) relative to the principle focus.  Depth of field is a function of how effectively the energy of diverging pulsons can be refracted to appropriate points on the detection screen.

2.Image formation as represented by the utilization of rays.  Each “true” ray originates from the point of an activated macron that creates a pulson.  In practice rays are derived from components that encode an imprint of the signal from the object under study at the detection device.  Rays may be represented as radii from the origins of pulson creations to points on the respective criton fronts.  The secondary signals from such ray points may be recombined by lenses to create real images when the objects are beyond the focal points (a) or virtual images when the objects are between the lens and the principle foci (b).  The strength of signals manipulated by a lens is enhanced above that obtained with a small aperture.

D.Mirrors.  The reflecting surfaces of mirrors may also be shaped to create constructive interference points analogous to those of lenses.  Plane mirrors provide virtual images.