Figure13.  Manipulation of an extended source utilizing small apertures.

A.Extended source.  Pulson emissions of different frequencies occur, separated in space, in a temporally random manner.  Pulsons may vary in duration, i.e. length, and criton front density.  Although conditions may be adjusted so that one photon (an excited detection unit) at a time is created at the detection screen, because of the randomness associated with pulson emissions from the primary source, after the appropriate time interval, uniform illumination patterns are observed.  A source of ambiguity is related to the exact nature of the detection unit, i.e. what measurement parameters do we associate with the photon?

B.Single aperture.  A small aperture is created in the first of two parallel screens.  Three representative ray paths are drawn from activated macrons in the primary source to the second screen.  A ray is represented by the narrow arc segments centered on the source point for a pulson that passes through the aperture. Pulson arc segments centered along such ray paths possess an energy advantage in creating excited macrons in the second screen.  Each pulson carries the imprint of the circumstances under which it was created.  However, the effective shape of the aperture changes from a circle to an ellipse relative to the source of the pulsons as the angle of approach increases for off-center source points.  Thus under these conditions the signal that emerges from the single aperture carries an inherent astigmatism. As the aperture gets smaller the relative impact of the secondary signals (diffraction) increases.  (Diffraction effects are not shown for the aperture.)  When geometry is appropriately balanced the conditions necessary for a pinhole camera are created.  Since excitation points at the detector are directly connected by primary pulsons to the object being photographed, the depth of field is greater than that mediated by lenses that involve refraction.

C.A second parallel screen with an aperture is arranged such that tandem apertures are centered between the primary source and the detection screen.  Pulson arc segments from the primary signal arrive at the second aperture along nearly identical paths and thus react with the second aperture in a redundant manner under the protocol described for Fig. 9.  This procedure reduces the astigmatism associated with a single slit as noted for 13-B.  At the detection screen for the appropriate geometry, the pattern displayed in Fig. 10-A* is obtained.  When the second screen contains very narrow twin slits such that the primary signal beyond the second screen is sequestered, the Young-type interference patterns are produced (Fig. 3).  If a narrow barrier replaces the second screen the conditions of Fig. 6 and Taylor’s experiment (Fig. 8) may be created.  The functionally of analogies to rays (See Fig. 14 and Fig. 16.), waves, and particles (photons) may be explained as expressions of different experimental conditions for the pulson.