Figure 14.  Ray diagrams and the structure of optical rays based on energy mediation by pulsons.

A.Ray diagrams of light illustrating the relationship among the angles of incidence ( i ), reflection ( r ), and refraction ( r’) at a surface separating air and water.  

B.Signal transmission and the ray.  A single pulson may induce emissions of secondary pulsons from an array of macrons (Fig. 2 E).  The process is time dependent; therefore, the transit velocity through a medium for the signal is less than c. (See Case II.)  When the pulsons fronts from the source approach a smooth surface of a transparent medium such that they are parallel to its surface the excitation of surface macrons is simultaneous.  Under such conditions, the constructive interference signals are created perpendicular to the approaching wave front.  As represented in this example, during Phase I the signal is transmitted in space as uniform criton fronts from the primary pulson source.  In Phase II, within the medium, signal transmission is mediated by secondary macron emissions and their interactions.  In Phase III the signal emitted from the medium is composed of composites of criton fronts emitted by the macrons of the exit surface of the medium.  Rays are represented by sectors of the signal contained between two lines that carrier the information emitted by the original activated macron.  See Fig. 16.  As the distance from the source increases the criton fronts become planer and the ray boundaries may be represented by parallel lines.